Why LSAs crash so much

I have long held a view that Light Sport Aircraft (LSAs) are not, as many people seem to think, just less expensive ‘mini’ GA aircraft.

For a start, they are built to much tighter weight tolerances than typical GA aircraft and thus need careful maintenance to ensure that they remain airworthy. Don’t get me wrong – a correctly maintained LSA can have a life span of many many years – but alas, in Australia, quite a few LSAs are quite legally owner-maintained by people who do not really have the skills, experience or knowledge to do so….but that’s another rant.

More importantly, LSAs have quite different flight handling characteristics from typical GA aircraft. This starts with taxiing, where dyed-in-the-wool GA jocks often describe them as ‘squirrely’, through to take-off performance: what typical school GA trainer will take off in 4-5 seconds after applying power, as many LSAs will? In the cruise, the light wing loading of most LSAs (remember, the regulation requires a stall speed limit of 42 knots ‘clean’) is more susceptible to turbulence – although the great upside of most LSAs is that they are a lot more responsive (to some, ‘fun’) on the controls.

This responsiveness, however, can potentially cause problems when it comes to the approach and landing phase of flight. For a start, approach and landing speeds of most LSAs are around 50 knots or even slower, a speed which feels dangerous to many GA pilots. Come in faster and you’ll likely over-control, and/or float or balloon the aircraft, with potentially disastrous consequences.

To further expand our thinking, Paul Bertorelli of AVweb has made a great little video on the subject of accidents in LSAs, which you can view by clicking on the picture above or here: Why Light Sport Airplanes suffer so many crashes

Most of Paul’s statistics refer to the USA market but all of his comments apply to LSAs the world over. Enjoy the video!

Cross-wind flap settings

Cross windCross-wind limits, final approach speeds and flap settings are some of the most frequently requested information by pilots new (and not so new!) to the Foxbat. So here are a few pointers based on the Pilot Operating Handbook (POH) and experience.

Cross-wind limits
Light Sport Aircraft (LSA) regulations stipulate a quoted cross-wind limit based on a ‘reasonably competent’ pilot being able to land the plane safely. This is quite different from the typical GA specification, where most manufacturers quote a ‘demonstrated’ cross-wind limit – which is usually the strongest cross-wind the best factory test pilot can manage!

The A22LS Foxbat LSA quoted cross-wind limit is 14 knots; that is a wind of 14 knots at right angles to the runway, or stronger winds at lesser angles. That is not to say that an experienced pilot couldn’t land the aircraft safely at cross-winds higher than that – indeed, the ‘demonstrated’ cross-wind limit is certainly a good bit higher. However, fly the plane by the book and don’t take risks!

Final approach speeds
The Foxbat POH recommends 49 knots with full flap along the later stages of finals. And that’s at maximum 600 kgs weight; it will clearly need to be slower at lower weights.

For light, low-inertia aircraft like the Foxbat a general rule of thumb is to approach to land at 1.5 x stall speed. Stall speed, at full flap and engine at idle, in the Foxbat is 28 knots. 1.5 x 28 knots = 42 knots, so 49 knots leaves plenty of margin! Without doubt, the Foxbat is very easy to land at the correct speeds – and really quite tricky if you come in at 55, 60 or 65 knots – the aircraft will float and float and respond to every gust of wind while it does so. Just by-the-by, I am appalled by instructors who tell their solo students to approach at 60-65 knots in the Foxbat…and then wonder why they have problems landing. In this case, adding a bit of speed ‘for safety’ in fact probably does just the opposite. Fly the plane by the book and don’t take risks!

Flap settings
The flap limiting speed on the A22LS Foxbat is between 80 and 85 knots, depending on specification. With light winds within 10 degrees of the centreline, it’s fine to use both stages of flap. However, as winds strengthen and/or gain more cross-wind component, the flap setting should be considered more carefully.

There’s another general rule of thumb: for every 5 knots of cross wind, reduce the flap setting by one stage. Thus, with 10 knots or more of cross-wind it’s probably best to leave the flaps up on the Foxbat. However, this does introduce other considerations. First, the stall speed increases without flap, to about 38 knots in the Foxbat. So, using the rule of thumb mentioned above, 1.5 x 38 = 57 knots, so your finals approach speed needs to be adjusted accordingly. Which means the aircraft will land shallower, faster and longer. Nevertheless, the higher speed will give a quicker response to control inputs, allowing slightly quicker corrections to attitude.

My advice: practice cross-wind landings frequently, with and without flaps, until you feel comfortable handling them. You never know when operational requirements or an emergency may need to you get down safely in a cross-wind. Stick to the POH figures and you won’t go far wrong.

10 steps to buying a Light Sport Aircraft (LSA)

Buying an LSA?Looking to buy a new or used Light Sport Aircraft (LSA)? Read on for FoxbatPilot’s exclusive guide on what to look for and how to do it. This might seem a bit of a long read but hopefully you’ll find it useful!

1. First and most important, decide your budget!
Like any other major purchase, it’s easy to stray above your limit but decide your budget in the clear light of day and don’t let the red mist of ‘wanting’ overpower the cool breeze of ‘needing’. Write your budget down on your buying checklist to remind you. Big red numbers are best!

Don’t forget that in addition to the aircraft itself, there are plenty of other costs to allow for:
– how will it be delivered/collected? Will that be your cost or the sellers?
– what about insurance?
– where will you keep it when you’ve bought it? At first sight, hangar/shed/ownership/rental may look expensive but aircraft can deteriorate very expensively when left in the Australian open for even moderate amounts of time.
– who will pay for the mandatory pre-purchase condition report and registration transfer?
– don’t forget running costs like servicing, fuel, oil, replacement of worn items like brakes.
– what about essential accessories like headsets and GPS? Are they included, or extras you’ll have to pay for?

2. Take a reality check.
Be realistic – what will you really use this aircraft for? Everyone wants the latest model with all the avionics trimmings but these can be very (very) expensive. If you fly mostly weekends and/or evenings and early mornings, with the occasional longer trip – maybe to an annual fly-in or other event – then save your dollars and get an aircraft that’s simple, less worry, enjoyable and fun to fly. The polish on the shiniest of trinkets can tarnish after even only a short while, so don’t over-equip. Like motor cars, you won’t get back the value of extras like digital screens, autopilots or fancy paint jobs when you come to sell. And more gadgets means higher insurance too. Finally, the more optional items, the more likelihood of something going wrong – aeroplanes are notoriously difficult environments for electronic and other sensitive equipment, even when they are not flying.

3. Get your money lined up before you start looking.
If you are selling an existing aircraft to (help) fund the new one, get it on the market as soon as you can – remember, many printed magazines can take several weeks from deadline to publication. Even online markets can take several days to get going.
If you have the cash in the bank and ready – great! If not, a preliminary application to your bank or finance company will (hopefully) line up the funds so that when you find that gem of your dreams, you’re ready to go. Having the funds ready helps to show the seller that you are a serious buyer. Procrastinating statements like “I need to settle on a property before I can go ahead” or “I need to sell my current aircraft first” might suggest you’re not serious. Worst of all, avoid the “I just have to clear it with my partner/colleague/treasurer” etc, all of which suggest you aren’t really the decision maker, or, worse, are just a tyre-kicker.

4. Start looking.
In Australia, there are several magazines (some are online) with small (and big) ads for new and used aircraft. In particular, for LSAs, try the monthlies – Aviation Trader or Sport Pilot; both are available at newsagents. Also search the internet – you can enter the type of aircraft you’re seeking; alternatively, ‘light sport aircraft for sale’ (maybe followed by your country name) will bring up a host of options. Once you start following the links, you’ll find there is a huge number of organisations selling aircraft. But beware – unless you really know what you’re doing, you should probably avoid buying from overseas. Attractive as the big USA sites are – Barnstormers, Trade-a-Plane, Controller and others – there are many expensive pitfalls when buying and importing an aircraft!
Be thorough in your research; for example look at typical used values for similar aircraft to establish the right price for that model. Search for incident/accident reports to see if there’s any pattern for that aircraft. Talk to other people about your preferred aircraft – but beware, many people have their own favourites (both to love and hate) so listen to everything with a pinch of salt.

5. Go and inspect your selection.
If at all possible, take someone with you – a second pair of eyes is really worth it when it comes to looking at aeroplanes. A suitably qualified engineer is a good choice, even if you have to pick up their expenses.
Before you go flying – patience! – have a thorough look at:
– all the paperwork; are the airframe, engine and propeller logbooks up to date?
– are the serial numbers in the paperwork the same as on the aircraft? Particularly, check the airframe, engine and propeller serial numbers.
– where are the Pilot Operating Manual and Maintenance Manual? Are they the originals? If not, why not?
(It is mandatory for all LSAs to be delivered with a Statement of LSA Compliance, Factory Flight Test Report, Factory Weight and Balance sheet, Pilot Manual, Maintenance Manual and Flight Training Supplement. Without these documents, the aircraft does not technically conform to LSA regulations and may be demoted to ‘Experimental’ status.)
– look for any record of damage repairs and regular service information. If no damage is reported in the books, will the owner give a written guarantee of NDH (no damage history) if you decide to buy?
– check the weight and balance. Aircraft are notoriously willing to put on weight! Ask the owner to guarantee in writing the figures in the aircraft records are correct. If not – will they pay to weigh it?
(Flying an aircraft overweight is probably the most common offence in Light Sport Aircraft. You don’t want to find out through your insurance company when they decline a claim or – worse – through a ramp check, that what you thought was a 325 kilo empty aircraft was in fact a 375 kilo aircraft and you were, for example, 35 kilos overweight.)
– check if there is any significant service work coming up – eg the Rotax 5-yearly rubber, carburettor diaphragm and fuel pump replacement requirement.
– inspect the whole aircraft for damage, leaks, wear, signs of neglect etc. If it’s flown a thousand hours, it’s not going to be perfect but it should still be reasonable for its age and completely airworthy.
– finally, check if the aircraft is on finance, ie: is the owner legally able to sell it?

6. Prepare for the test flight.
Before going for a test flight – let alone deciding to buy, look out for red and amber signals. You’re going to be spending thousands, so make sure you are buying what you want!

Here are some red flags:
– any ‘missing’ paperwork, whatever the reason
– gaps in registration and/or servicing
– owner refuses to warranty the empty weight in writing
– owner refuses to confirm NDH (no damage history) in writing, or details of repairs if carried out (how? by whom? when?)
– unexplained smells, noises, cracks, high wear on a supposed low time aircraft, other defects
– your own gut feeling that something’s not right

Amber signals, where you may be re-assured and/or the issues can be dealt with in the sale price:
– expensive maintenance coming up (eg Rotax 5-year rubber replacement)
– flight hours over about 250 a year (suggests use in flight training)
– only a very limited number of this type of aircraft in the country, which means you may be the flight test dummy!
– more than one owner every couple of years (might indicate problems of one kind or another)
– outstanding loans or other bills on the aircraft (get written information)

In Summary, unless everything is to your satisfaction – WALK AWAY! There will always be another one along soon.

7. Test fly the aircraft.
If you’re flying with the owner, be sure s/he is (a) qualified to fly this aircraft, (b) with you as a ‘passenger’ and (c) is current with medical, BFR etc. Personally, I like to see the licence and flight logbook of anyone I fly with if I have never met them before…In extreme circumstances, your life may even be at stake, so check and double check everything before you fly an unknown aircraft!

The test flight itself could be the subject of a whole book, just on its own. But here are a few pointers:
– will it be easy to exit the aircraft in the event of a problem?
– can you move the controls fully and easily throughout their range?
– does the owner give you stuff like ‘it’s a characteristic of this plane…’ (is that a good or a bad one?) or, ‘I’ll fix that before it’s sold’ (why didn’t they fix it already?)
– listen to the engine and the airframe at every stage – taxiing, engine run up, take-off, climb, cruise, etc etc.
– watch the engine dials, particularly oil pressure and temperature
– can you easily see out while you’re flying? for example, some aircraft have seats which put your eye-line well above the bottom of the high-wing, meaning you’ll really have to duck your head to see out before turning that way.
– watch the owner fly the aircraft before you take the controls. Does s/he inspire you with confidence or blind you with b******t?
– fly for at least an hour; many problems can be hidden for 20-30 minutes

8. Make your decision.
This is important – do not let your heart rule your head! You’ll have a long time to repent a bad decision and it may also cost you big money.
Agree a price with the seller and make it subject to a full and detailed inspection by a qualified engineer – in fact, if the aircraft is registered with RA-Aus, it is a regulatory requirement for registration transfer that a written ‘condition report’ is carried out. Make sure this is done by an independent engineer – ideally someone you know and trust, not one of the seller’s friends.
Whether RA-Aus or GA registered, include a pre-transfer, full 100-hourly/annual service in the deal. This service legally requires all current & applicable service/safety bulletins to be carried out, so you’ll know the aircraft is all present and correct; and if a discrepancy is found later, you’ll have a comeback on the seller. Any problems should be fixed by the seller before you buy the aircraft.
Pay the seller a small deposit to hold the aircraft until you can settle. ‘Small’ means a lot of things…maybe $5,000 is enough to confirm your intent. ‘Until you settle’ shouldn’t mean more than a a week or two.

9. Get your money and insurance finalised.
If you’re taking out a loan to buy the aircraft, it is usually a loan pre-condition that the aircraft is properly insured. As per the very first step – see above – you will already have checked out loans and insurance, so now is the time to finalise them.
A word of caution – depending on the size of the loan and the security you are offering, some finance companies (in particular banks, it seems) require their name to be listed as a part owner on the aircraft title. It is important to clarify this with your loan provider at the outset, as (from experience) I know that this requirement can present last-minute hitches while RA-Aus or CASA reconsider your registration application with an additional name added.
Agree with the seller how you will pay the final amount – some people are OK with bank cheques, some prefer cleared EFT funds before they will handover the aircraft. Cash can be acceptable but tens of thousands in used notes is likely to be both inconvenient and inadvisable!

10. Go and collect your aircraft.
Notice –  I say go and collect it. Ideally with a friend for moral support in the event of problems and companionship on the way home. There are a few reasons for this advice:
– if things are not exactly as agreed when you get there, you can turn round and head home if needed. If the seller has flown the aircraft to you, s/he may be unwilling to take it back home if you’re not happy with it.
– you can take it for a final test flight before accepting it. This ensures everything is as it should be; there’s no “It was alright on the way here, I can’t understand how that’s happened” stuff to deal with.
– the flight home is a great opportunity to enjoy your new acquisition and get to know it in all phases of flight. That return trip is likely to be the longest flight you’ll do in the aircraft for a while, as you get to know it.
– particularly if it’s a new aircraft, you’ll be the first person to fly it any distance. Ferry pilots are usually responsible people but you’ll never know if they explored the Vne along the way or ignored the rough air cruise speeds….or had a couple of ‘heavy’ landings.

11. Have fun!
I know the title is ’10 steps to buying a Light Sport Aircraft’ but now you’ve bought it, go out and enjoy it. But take it easy until you have flown at least a hundred hours in it and got to know all its individual characteristics. It may be capable of 130 knots cruise – but that’s no reason to thrash it every flight. It may be able to land and take off from short strips – but not every take off and landing has to be a demonstration of this capability (which almost certainly is greater than yours!). Hopefully, you’ll experience a long and loving relationship – treat your aeroplane right and it will look after you.

This article is intended only as a guide. The opinions are only my own and others may think differently. If there’s anything with which you fundamentally disagree, please tell me directly.

So you think light sport & recreational aircraft are expensive to maintain??

SIDS picThose of you bemoaning the ever-escalating costs of keeping your light sport and recreational aircraft in tip-top airworthy condition should spare a thought for Cessna owners.

AOPA Australia has published some information about compliance with the Cessna SIDs (Supplemental Inspection Documents) process, which has been devised to help ensure older aircraft remain airworthy. Unless you have at least a 7-figure credit bank balance, it makes for pretty bleak reading. And, after all, most older planes are owned by people who can’t afford to buy new ones, so the compliance cost is particularly burdensome.

Here’s a few examples relating to the venerable Cessna ‘100 series’ aircraft, ie 150, 152, 170, 172 etc. These requirements have a deadlines looming ever closer – the end of 2015 for commercially used aircraft and end of June 2016 for private aircraft. Cost figures are ex-GST and are only intended to be broad estimates.

SIDs 2CASA AWB 02-048 issue #2 requires that all mandatory and advisory service bulletins concerning the Principal Structural Elements (PSEs) of the aircraft are inspected and complied with. This includes not only obvious and expected items like wing spars and landing gear but also things like door frames and, for example, any areas of the aircraft skin under ‘fore & aft’ and/or ‘circumferential loads’ – ie most of the aircraft. Projected costs for this inspection and typical remedial work are in the A$10k-A$50k range.

In addition, NDBs and VORs have to be decommissioned and VHF radios and nav equipment updated. You’re looking at A$35k-A$55k for new TSO’d equipment. Makes the Dynon SkyView look like very good value…

In addition, AD/GEN/87 Primary Flight Control Cable Retirement (scroll down that page to see AD 87) requires all flight control cables to be replaced every 15 years. Cost estimate A$8k every 15 years. Many aircraft are still operating with the original manufacturer’s cables, even after 30-40 years.

In addition, there is a proposed airworthiness directive (AD/PROP/1A3) which will require regular mandatory strip downs on all constant speed props – cost every 6 years is around A$2k. It is estimated that as many as 50% of these propellers will be deemed unserviceable and have to be replaced, at a typical cost of A$14k.

Finally, after the initial SIDs inspection & remedial work, there’s an ongoing SIDs ‘top-up’ cost of around A$3k a year to keep it all current. On top of any other required maintenance.

If you own a Cessna single engine retractable or, even worse, a twin, you’d better start looking round for a second mortgage on your home – assuming it’s worth enough – because SIDs related costs could be 3-4 times as much as for a ‘simple’ single.

Against these figures, an annual cost of under A$1,000 for a LAME or L2 to issue your LSA maintenance release doesn’t look so bad. And if you get your L1 ticket, you can maintain your RA-Australia registered aircraft yourself. Personally, although I’m doing the L1 with RA Australia online, I want a fully qualified engineer to check out my aircraft at least once a year…

Choosing a Light Sport Aircraft (LSA) – 2 – speed vs range

speed vs rangeAfter weight, speed and range are two important aspects of specification to consider.

First, a short story to illustrate. Many years ago, a group of us were flying from an airfield near the Gold Coast to the annual ‘Natfly’ event – then held at Narromine in New South Wales. It’s about a 4-5 hour flight, depending on your speed. My aircraft would cruise at around 95-100 knots; there were others in new 120-knot hot ships. So it was lots of ‘see you when you get there Pete, we’ll be in the bar’. All that sort of thing. So they were a bit surprised to find me parked and tied down when they arrived, just over 4 hours later… And it all came down to range. My little plane carried almost 120 litres of fuel and still left weight for a passenger and baggage. And there was plenty of reserve fuel for the flight. The speedy aircraft carried much less fuel and for safety had landed about halfway to refuel. So overall, although a slower cruiser, I got there first – a bit hare & tortoise-ish.

However, it isn’t a simple matter of more fuel or more speed…

To go faster you need a sleek aircraft with less drag. How’s that achieved? A slimmer fuselage profile – less space for people, baggage and fuel. A thinner sleeker (and probably smaller) wing – potentially trickier handling and less room for fuel. Possibly a composite airframe, with no exposed rivet heads to slow you down. Lots of aerodynamic work in the engine bay to reduce drag – more expensive, more chance of overheating on a long climb to smooth air or when you’re not cruising flat out?

And it’s no good being able to go fast in still air if you have to back off the speed by 30% (sometimes more) when the air gets rough. Which means the airframe has to be stronger, which means more weight, which means less for people and fuel. It can be a vicious circle of diminishing gains.

To go further, it’s relatively simple: you need more fuel. But more fuel means bigger and/or more tanks, leaving less space for people and bags. It also means the wings can’t be too slim or small as they are potentially needed for fuel. And in light sport aircraft with their maximum 600 kilos take-off weight limit, more fuel invariably means less weight available for people and bags.

As we used to say in marketing: ‘You can either have it fast, or cheap or high quality. But not all three’. So it is with aeroplanes – every manufacturer is trying for that elusive combination of high speed cruise, slow speed safety & handling, high weight carrying capacity and, last but not least, lowest possible cost. Unless you have an almost unlimited wad of cash (then, surely, you wouldn’t be in the light sport market?) you have to choose your own priority requirements and be prepared to compromise on the others.

Next – something you should never compromise: Safety

Measuring the LSA market

Rotax 912 ULS engineI found an interesting article in General Aviation News about the growth of the Light Sport Aircraft (LSA) market, both in the USA and worldwide. Click HERE to read the article.

Written by Dan Johnson (see his aviation blog at ByDanJohnson.com) it concludes that Rotax is by far the world’s biggest aviation engine manufacturer, with well over 50,000 four-stroke and over 120,000 two-stroke aircraft engines delivered to date. As a result, their annual engine sales can be used as a barometer for the recreational/LSA market as a whole, as other manufacturers like Lycoming and Continental are not really players in this market.

Dan makes some interesting remarks around the different proportions of LSA versus GA registrations in the USA in comparison with the rest of the world. In the USA, the GA-LSA ratio is 80-20, while in the rest of the world the ratio is reversed: 20-80 in favour of LSAs. He comments that this is probably because GA is relatively cheap in the USA and perceived to be very expensive elsewhere. (Tell me about it!). Although USA is the biggest single LSA market, nearly twice as many LSAs are actually sold outside the USA.

Other influencing factors in the USA may be that many aircraft service centres are unfamiliar with Rotax engines and some don’t even have access to the metric tools needed on the engine. Contrast that with Europe – and even Australia – where the Rotax is now a familiar engine.